Management of Waste in city

An Indian boy walks by the Arabian Sea coast piled with garbage,

 

Waste management is the process of treating solid wastes and offers variety of solutions for recycling items that don’t belong to trash. It is about how garbage can be used as a valuable resource. Waste management is something that each and every household and business owner in the world needs. Waste management disposes of the products and substances that you have use in a safe and efficient manner.

Waste management or Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.[1] This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.

The term normally relates to all kinds of waste, whether generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, or other human activities,[1] including municipal (residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural, and social (health care, household hazardous waste, sewage sludge).[2] Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics.

Garbage disposal in Cities Skylines appears to be a much bigger issue than it is in real life. Perhaps it’s done to create global awareness of how important a proper garbage disposal system is to a society, but whatever the reasons behind it are is irrelevant.

In order to tackle this troublesome issue, you’ll need to have a good know how of the service buildings that take care of garbage disposal in the game, what their purposes are, and how you can get the healthiest and best output out of them.

For more help on Cities Skylines, read our Transportation System, Best Power Plants and Pollution Control Guide.

 

Cities Skylines Garbage Disposal

We have got the tips for you to do that in this guide. First up, let’s take a look at the most basic garbage building: the Landfills.

Landfills

Landfills are basically large areas of land where you will be able to toss garbage out. However, they come in the form of a City Service ‘building’, and are the most basic garbage disposal buildings in the game.

 

Each Landfill will have its own number of garbage trucks that will go around to regions which are connected to the landfill via roads, collect garbage, come back, and dump it into the landfill.

However, you have to be very careful with landfills, since they have a limited capacity.

Once they are filled up, landfills can be emptied out. This consumes a surprisingly large amount of time, so you might want to consider emptying them when they are 80% full instead of 100%.

Landfills generally have a very low upkeep cost. However, they produce a lot of ground pollution, reduce the value of the land where they are placed, and can cause sickness to citizens living near them.

Incinerators

Incinerators are advanced garbage disposal buildings that have a dual purpose. Firstly, the act as your regular garbage disposal service building, dispatching garbage trucks to areas they are connected to.

However, instead of accumulating the garbage, Incinerators will burn it to produce electricity. Pretty handy, right? The downside to this is that Incinerators produce a lot of noise and air pollution, which means you’ll have to place them far away from the main city.

Also, Incinerators tend to have a fewer number of trucks as compared to landfills, and a much higher upkeep cost. Despite these downsides, placing a few Incinerators in your city will almost completely get rid of the garbage issues, which is an annoyingly serious problem in Cities Skylines.

You should only replace landfills with Incinerators only when your population reaches around 20,000 and have a profit of more than $15,000. This way, you’ll be able to utilize the upkeep cost of the Incinerators, and have enough garbage to produce a decent amount of electricity from these buildings.

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Mr “Puran Doshi” secretary of Congress(I) & Ex Corporator  is working towards cleanliness of Colaba. According to him a developing country should also be a clean and green country. He believes that the areas of Colaba should be clean & pollution free to ensure good health of citizens.

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Importance of Mangroves in our Environment

 

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Importance of Mangroves in our enviroment

Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical sheltered coastlines. They are not affected by forest fires, but about 50% (50,000 km²) of their total areal extent, particularly in Asia, Australia, Madagascar and the Caribbean, are potentially exposed to tropical cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes. In the mangroves of India and Bangladesh, especially at the mouth of the Ganges, the threat from strong winds, surges driven by storm waves and floods, is one of the most deadly in the world. Paradoxically this mangrove area, known as “The Sunderbans,” bears the largest natural mangroves of the world in a single block (about 6,050 km², i.e., 2,000 km² in India and 4,050 km² in Bangladesh). Emphasis in this paper is on the impacts of windstorms in the mangroves of the Bay of Bengal, deducted from field observations and satellite image analysis, including forest destructions and forest alterations like defoliation. The final result of our analysis is that mangrove species are able, in this part of the world, to heal cyclonic wounds and maintain their total areal extent constant in the absence of human interference.

Mangrove Threats and Solutions

Mangrove forests are one of the world’s most threatened tropical ecosystems

More than 35% of the world’s mangroves are already gone. The figure is as high as 50% in countries such as India, the Philippines, and Vietnam, while in the Americas they are being cleared at a rate faster than tropical rainforests.

Removal of mangroves or disturbance may cause:

Increased risk of Acid Sulphate Soils

Disturbing acid sulphate soils, which are associated with low oxygen soils characteristic of mangrove forests, results in a threat to the health of humans, fauna, and flora in contact with the dangerously acidic waters.

Accelerated erosion

Accelerated rates of coastal and riverine bank erosion can result in bank collapse, loss of coastal foreshore, and can result from clearing of disturbance of mangroves. Retaining mangroves as erosion buffers makes it unnecessary to build erosion-prevention devices such as the expensive sea walls that are already common along stretches of the Redlands coast.

Loss of habitat

Destruction and/or degradation of mangroves results in a loss of vital habitat for:

birds – migratory birds and other terrestrial and marine birds use these wetlands to roost, breed and feed (mangrove flower nectar and fish, crabs etc)

fish – all parts of mangroves are protected under the Fisheries Act 1994, as they provide young fish spawn with a vital source of food (e.g.. decaying leaves) and protection from prey and the battering of the tide

seagrasses and dependent fauna – large amounts of organic matter (e.g.decaying leaves) produced by mangroves are swept out to enrich the seagrass beds – without mangroves, seagrasses are not able to sustain the dugongs, turtles and fish that feed and live in them

other fauna – crabs and molluscs, and other marine fauna, depend on the mangroves to provide shelter, food and habitat

Increased coastal flooding

Without mangroves and salt marshes to soak up the tidal and freshwater inputs, there is potential for heavy flooding during high tides. Removal of mangroves places the inhabitants of foreshore developments at risk.

Degraded water quality

Removal or degradation of mangroves results in higher erosion, which will increase the turbidity (amount of particles and sediment in the water) of coastal and riverine waters. The nutrient levels, including nutrients associated with development (e.g. chemicals from industrial and farming activities), will increase if mangroves are not there to act as filters and trap these nutrients for recycling in the mangrove ecosystem.

Higher nutrient levels may result in ‘eutrophication’ evidence by algal blooms, which cover the water surface blocking the sunlight and oxygen from reaching other marine and freshwater organisms. Higher turbidity and sediment in nearshore and riverine environments can also result in the smothering of bottom-dwelling organisms.

 

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Mr Puran doshi Secretary – Mumbai Congress. Ex – Corporator has taken a stand to protect Mangroves in Colaba. Mangroves have disappeared at an alarming speed. The shortage of open land for construction and the high value of real estate means the city’s remaining mangrove forests are facing an uncertain future. At such rapid destruction Mr Puran doshi, stood & raised his voice against destruction of Mangroves

Air Pollution In Colaba

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The air we breathe – Is it Safe?

I love Mumbai’s air..though it is very polluted as everyone says. At places, the air brings the smell of sea or wafting smell of lovely roadside food, at other places of leather, ammonia, garbage and stench of human filth. Now, all we seem to breathe in Mumbai is unbearable amounts of toxic gas mix all over Mumbai. Mumbai’s coastal climate is ideal for removal of air pollutants, however, the rate of removal is slower than the rate at which pollutants are generated, hence we end up with a cauldron of toxic gas mix

As with everything else that citizens of Mumbai put up with, from terrorism to packed trains, heavily polluted air is also another in their list of things that they have come to accept. Very complacent huh? or are the people of Mumbai sitting ducks?

Sitting ducks, photograph by Purushottam V.Rao

How bad is the pollution on Mumbai? The city authorities are well aware of what it could loose if it fails to address this pressing issue of air pollution. It is engaged in various ameliorative measures to address the issue. What remains to be seen is whether these measures are yielding any positive results.

For the uninitiated, the common air pollutants are :

Carbon Monoxide – CO

Oxides of Nitrogen – NOx

Sulphur Dioxide – SO2

Suspended particular matter – SPM

Respirable suspended particulate matter – RSPM

Hydrocarbons – HC

Deteriorating air quality is the result of rapid economic growth, industrial output, unprecedented rise in vehicles to cater to the city’s burgeoning population.

Breathing the air in Mumbai for just 1 day is equivalent to smoking 100 cigarettes, a study says

Diwali celebrations ended almost a month ago but the contamination in the air still continues to threaten the city

In order to have minimal impact on a person’s health, the air quality index has to be between 0 and 50 but as recorded by the meteorological department in Mumbai last month, the air quality index has mounted to dangerously high levels of 225 which can easily increase the susceptibility to respiratory infections in sensitive individuals especially children and the elderly.

The air quality has worsened not only in Mumbai but in Delhi as well. Known for its crisp cold nights, Delhi weather has deteriorated to nothing but grey, smog-filled health nightmare. Pollution levels have escalated considerably over the past few days after both the cities witnessed a certain level of drop in the temperature

According to the World Health Organization, Every year, Air pollution claims millions of lives across the globe, with more than 627,000 deaths reported in India alone. According to a study 1 in every 8 deaths on earth are linked to Air Pollution

Prolonged exposure to high levels of air pollutants can not only cause respiratory disorders in healthy people but also impact those with existing heart and respiratory disorders. Mumbai’s air pollution standards index (PSI) shows that pollution levels rise after the monsoon and peak in December. Laden with toxic substances and cancer-causing particles, the air in Mumbai has become more polluted than the air in Beijing. One of the main causes of this outcome is the increasing number of vehicles on Mumbai’s streets. Motor vehicles emit a host of hazardous pollutants into the air, most of which are capable of causing a significant damage to the human health. Toxic gases emitted from chemical factories and fire crackers have further aggravated the problem of air pollution, thereby creating an unbearable living condition in India

Mumbaikars have a tough life with high property prices making housing unaffordable while poor infrastructure makes travel times a nightmare. But if that wasn’t bad enough, they now have to deal with rising air pollution, with data from SAFAR (the System of Air quality, Weather Forecasting and Research) showing that Mumbai’s air is becoming as bad as that of Delhi.

“On an average, the air quality numbers for Mumbai range between 200 to a little over 300, with the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and 10 in the moderate to high range. This is really not a good sign and we must take steps to check it before it crosses 300” say KS Hosalikar, the deputy director general of meteorology in Mumbai.

In the danger zone: Mumbai’s air quality dips

That may be a little too late. The air quality index (AQI) has already breached the 300 mark several times, with areas like Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC), the Western Suburbs, Malad and Borivali falling into the poor and very poor categories. Experts have found moderate to high levels of pollutants such as PM 2.5 and PM 10, which can be dangerous to human health.

“These are dust particles which are not visible to the naked eye and we don’t realize the effect it has on us. The literature says PM 2.5 can severely affect someone who has lung disease and asthma and is irremovable once it goes into your lungs” warns KS Hosalikar.

Why is Mumbai’s air turning terrible?

So where is all this muck coming from? Like in Delhi, vehicular traffic is the first suspect generating vast amounts of PM 2.5. But that’s just one part of the story. Mumbai’s poor infrastructure has to take a majority of the blame.

“The number of vehicles in Mumbai is one-third that of Delhi, but the number of vehicles per kilometer of road is 3 to 4 times more than Delhi. This density coupled with narrow roads & bad traffic management leads to traffic jams and slow-moving traffic, which releases more harmful pollutants into the air” says transport analyst, Ashok Datar.

The construction sector is the other major culprit, releasing PM 10 pollutants in the form of dust and debris. Most under-construction projects in the city observe little or no waste-disposal norms, and construction is carried out in the open air with no netting or material in place to trap air-borne particles.

Can Mumbai breathe easy?

Experts say if urgent measures aren’t taken to solve these problems, air-quality levels in Mumbai will dip even further. That would be fatal for the city, making people think twice before moving here.

“When making investment or real estate decisions, people usually take into account factors such as price, location and infrastructure. While these are important, I definitely see pollution, especially high pollution levels becoming the deciding factor going ahead” say Joe Verghese, MD. Colliers India

The government is considering several measures including CNG and implementation of odd-even traffic rules, but they are unlikely to be implemented soon. Will the government be able to get its act together to curb pollution? Or will Mumbaikars have to deal with one more issue that is making their city increasingly unlivable? Only time will tell

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Mr “Puran Doshi” secretary of Congress(I) & Ex Corporator, if won the Brihanmunicipal Elections would take up measures to control pollution created due to traffic jams at Colaba. He is an environmentalist person and has always worked towards improving environment conditions in Colaba. He has supported various environmental cause such as saving Mangroves of Colaba area & clearing parking of cars at Taj Mahal Hotel Shore.

Can the perennial Traffic Issue in Colaba ever get solved?

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Traffic on roads may consist of pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel. Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic.

Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include road construction, collisions, and debris in the roadway. On particularly busy freeways, a minor disruption may persist in a phenomenon known as traffic waves. A complete breakdown of organization may result in traffic congestion and gridlock. Simulations of organized traffic frequently involve queuing theory, stochastic processes and equations of mathematical physics applied to traffic flow.

Mumbai – the sixth biggest megacity in the world with a metropolitan population of around 20 million people – is notorious for its chaotic traffic. Swarms of black and yellow taxis and auto-rickshaws jostle with smoke-belching buses and battered Maruti-Suzukis in a cacophony of honking horns and revving engines. No one takes the slightest notice of road markings; there is no congestion charging or bus rapid transit; no bus lanes or bike lanes.

While private cars account for just 1.6% of journeys made in the city, their number has swelled 55% over the past seven years to 2.3m. There is a tradition of newspaper vendors, milkmen and dabbawalas – so-called “livelihood cyclists” – who depend on sturdy, black locally made bikes to go about their business, but, as the UCL’s Andrew Harris argues, transport policy is firmly geared towards the car. Cycling is seen by many as a low-status way of getting around.

Traffic Jam is a major problem in Colaba area. With thousands of people visiting the Gateway of India and the Taj Mahal Palace hotel, especially during tourist season, the residents of Colaba are highly inconvenienced. There is severe traffic congestion around the quadrangle: from Regal Cinema to the Gateway of India, to the Radio Club, and the Hanuman Mandir.

Residents, along with the ALM, My Dream Colaba, took the issue to the concerned authorities in an effort to resolve it and also came up with a few solutions. The traffic woes of the island city seem to grow manifold with each passing day. A drive down Fashion Street to Colaba and all the way to Cuffe Parade brings forth the startling fact of there being only one traffic police chowki manning that entire stretch.
One of the reasons offered by the authorities is that the traffic police are understaffed. Besides manpower, setting up a traffic police chowki also requires space. Though the residents have been demanding a chowki for some time, the traffic authority has offered only stopgap solutions. Ghanshyam Hegde, secretary of My Dream Colaba, says, “During peak hours, the situation is very bad, especially from Regal Cinema to the main gate of Sassoon Docks. Although the distance is less than a kilometre, it takes at least 30-40 minutes to cross the area. It is ridiculous. We had even written to the traffic commissioner about it. Initially, action had been taken and three to four constables had been stationed there—this improved the situation. But they left after a week or so and things deteriorated again.”
Residents say that although there are laws to resolve such issues, traffic constables and other law enforcing agents, except beat marshals, are seldom seen in the area. That too, once the beat marshals leave, things go haywire once again.

Two-way roads during peak season

Colaba resident Manjeet Kriplani said, “The problem has doubled with the authorities concretising some of the roads in the area during peak tourist season. With tourists flocking to see the Taj Mahal Palace hotel and the Gateway of India, the area sees almost two lakh visitors daily during the peak season. This leads to very bad traffic snarls. The continuous honking by vehicles also adds to the noise pollution of this area.”

One of the main reasons behind the traffic problem during the peak season is that the roads are one-way. Residents feel that if the roads are made two-way for two months (during peak season), it will help solve the problem to a large extent. “Also, most of the times, the big tourist buses cause traffic congestion. I do not understand when there is a BEST bus plying between CST and Gateway, why do we need separate tourist buses. They just add to the chaos and aggravate the situation.”

Proactive authorities needed. Residents also feel that the authorities of the area need to be more proactive. If any construction work is slated to begin, the authorities should talk to the residents and the shopkeepers in the area and take their inputs on how to manage the traffic.

“The authorities should have issued a public notice before beginning to concretise the roads during the peak season. They can also try to come up with alternative solutions to address the traffic problem. This area is supposed to be a tourist spot, hence it should look beautiful and organised, instead it is exactly the opposite. What kind of image are we presenting to the tourists, who visit this place? Also, the Victorias or the ghoda gaadis should be regularised or be minimalistic because they add considerably to the traffic woes,” said Bella Shah, another Colaba resident.

 

Residents’ participation

Nandita Bedi says, “We should also give cops their due. Most of the times they do a really good job. The only reason why they find it difficult to manage the traffic is because they are understaffed. What we can do is we can introduce the concept of a traffic warden. A traffic warden is a resident of the area, who helps the traffic policemen in managing the traffic. This has already been implemented in several parts of Mumbai, then why not here? These people can be trained by the traffic police and later when these wardens are needed, they can help the traffic police.”

Another solution, which the residents have come up with, is to make a pedestrian plaza during the weekend. It will not only make the area less noisy but also make it beautiful and peaceful. “A pedestrian plaza will make the whole area look more beautiful. Provisions can be made for senior citizens to walk and the cars belonging to the residents of this area can have stickers on them, so that they can move in and out of this area without being hassled,” said Manjeet Kriplani.

Mr “Puran Doshi” secretary of Congress(I) & Ex Corporator,  believes that the real beauty of Colaba is in traffic free roads. According to him, Colaba is a tourist spot & so traffic is a major issue in Colaba. In his view a proper management of traffic is needed to solve the chaos created at Colaba. He ensures that if he becomes the Corporator of Colaba he will ensure that all these issues get solved efficiently

Gate way of India: Why must it survive & Problems Faced By Gate way of India

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The Gateway of India is one of India’s most unique monumental landmarks which was built in the year 1924.

This massive monumental gate looks over the majestic Mumbai harbour which is bordered by the Arabian sea.

 

The Gateway of India, with its regal arches, stands guard facing the Arabian Sea at Apollo Bunder in bustling Colaba area of Mumbai. The most popular tourist attraction, it is the unofficial icon of the city of Mumbai and is a reminder of its rich colonial history as Bombay. The first structure to welcome visitors entering the city by sea, it is popularly called ‘Taj Mahal of Mumbai’. It stands at the end of Chhatrapati Shivaji Marg at the water’s edge. Visited by tourists and locals alike, the gateway and its promenade affords a great view of the boat-studded sea and is the connecting point for boat rides to and from the famous Elephanta Caves. The ‘Elephanta Festival of music and dance’ which was earlier held at the Elephanta caves, is now held in front of the Gateway in March every year

 

The Gateway faces the vast Arabian Sea, flanked by Mumbai’s another attraction, Marine Drive, a road running parallel to the sea. The majestic monument is a must-visit at night, in its pristine glory against the backdrop of the sea. It is visited by millions of people across the world every year and is a very significant figure in the lives of the people of Mumbai, as the Gateway defines the grandeur of the city that is a culmination of both, historic and modern cultural environment.

 

During the British Raj, the Gateway of India showcased the splendour of their establishment in India. It took approximately INR 21 lakhs to build this massive structure which was at the expense of the Indian government. It was built to celebrate King George V and Queen Mary’s visit to Mumbai. This beautiful structure, which was designed by George Wittet, took 4 years to complete the project.

 

This grand gate is a major tourist attraction in India, where tourists and photographers from across the world visit it to capture the beautiful landscape and surrounding.  The Gateway of India is open to everyone 24 x 7. This is a place where we see families, couples and individuals spending time sitting by the Gateway for some peace and cool breeze even in the busiest of days around it.

 

As one of India’s heritage monuments, conserving it is pivotal.  The Gateway provides a way to visit yet another unique tourist spot , the Elephanta Caves situated on an Island close to the Gateway of India. Motorboats help tourists in exploring the beauty of this islands and caves. The Gateway , which overlooks the vast blue blanket of the sea is a sight for the guests staying at one of India’s prestigious Taj Mahal Hotel which faces the monumental gate.

 

Over years, structures like these become weak and are exposed to a lot of wear and tear due to environmental changes, natural weathering, vandalism etc. The Gateway of India too is slowly falling victim to age, but at the same time its historical value is rising… As they say” Old is Gold!

 

The Gateway of India has a historical significance and a symbol of pride for the civilisation around it. The structure stands tall and looks strong, reminding the people of Mumbai , how strong and intense their culture and city is. In a nutshell, not only does The Gateway of India have a historical backbone but also an emotional sentiment which drives the people of the city.

This magnificent wonder must and should be taken care of to restore the spirit of Mumbai at all times.

 

Problems Faced by Gateway of India

 

Citing a total lack of parking space around the already overburdened Gateway of India, the Mumbai traffic police have returned the application submitted by the private company constructing the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation’s (MTDC) ‘Floatel’ — an ambitious project for a floating hotel off the coast of Mumbai — and asked the company to come up with solutions for the parking problems that it would create around south Mumbai.

The company, Chateau International Inc. Private Limited, had sought a No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the Traffic Police a month ago. The MTDC has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the company for the project. However, on Friday, the application was returned by BK Upadhyay, Joint Commissioner of Police (Traffic) stating that the Floatel would increase the parking problems around Gateway of India.

According to Upadhyay, there is no space around the Gateway of India even for the vehicles of guests of the five-star hotels there on weekends.”The Floatel would be in water and guests would have to park their vehicles on the shore. There are at least 300 vehicles expected to come every weekend because of the floating hotel. There is no space to accommodate these many vehicles,” said Upadhyay.
Police personnel said on weekends, they have to ask the drivers of five-star hotels’ guests to park in the bylanes or drive in circles in the area till the guests exit the hotels, and that if the Floatel comes up, there would simply be too many vehicles to manage in south Mumbai.

“We have sent the application back without giving the NOC and asked the company to come up with solutions for this problem. If this problem is solved by the company, we will give the NOC for the Floatel,” Upadhyay added.  In December 1996, the Union Environment Ministry had given clearance to Chateau International Inc. Private Limited to construct the ‘Floatel’ off Cuffe Parade in Mumbai. The project is being promoted by Ireland-based Deltic Management Company and Chateau International. It is to be located on a 26 hectare site leased from the Bombay Port Trust and comprises a 30-storey hotel and a 29-storey business centre. The lower deck of the hotel will house helicopters, a parking lot for 2,000 cars and infrastructure for the hotel. The project is to be connected to Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade through two undersea tunnels, a ropeway and a collapsible bridge.

The Bombay Environment Action Group (BEAG), a Mumbai-based environmental NGO, had fought the project tooth and nail when it was proposed. Apart from worsening the traffic congestion in south Mumbai, the floatel is also accused of threatening the livelihood of small fishermen in Mumbai.

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According to Mr “Puran Doshi” secretary of Congress(I) & Ex Corporator, private cars should not be parked near Gateway shore because when the parked cars will move it will cause the soil to shake & will lead to soil erosion which will further threaten the existence of  Gateway of India. His point is valid & if implemented can save the monument.

26/11 Mumbai Attacks

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The 2008 Mumbai attacks were a series of attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic militant organisation based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai. The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday, 26 November and lasted until Saturday, 29 November 2008, killing 164 people and wounding at least 308.

Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital, the Nariman House Jewish community centre, the Metro Cinema, and in a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier’s College. There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai’s port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle. By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj Hotel had been secured by Mumbai Police and security forces. On 29 November, India’s National Security Guards (NSG) conducted ‘Operation Black Tornado’ to flush out the remaining attackers; it culminated in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj Hotel and ended the attacks.

On November 26, 2008, Mumbai fell victim to one of the worst terrorist attacks in Indian history. Its perpetrators, members of the terrorist group Lashkar-Taiba, terrorized Maximum City for three days, targeting some of its most best-known locations and killing up to 166 people.

26/11 attack was different in a sense that for the first time, terrorists trained in Pakistan, used the sea route to enter India. The terrorists who participated in 26/11 Mumbai attacks were highly trained and were preparing for this strike for quite a long time. Their objective was to create terror and get some key terrorists released a la Kandhar hijacking episode.

It has been eight years since ten young men stormed into the financial capital of the country with the sole aim of wrecking it to the core — for three consecutive days, the city of Mumbai was wrapped in the grip of terror; eight years since Mumbai was brought down to its knees.

Up until November 2008, terror was associated with the fear that vexed the life of the common man or those unfortunate, inhabiting the disputed borders of the country. For the first time, the bubble of comfort that sheltered the propertied and elite in India was shattered. It was also the first time when foreigners in the country were the target of an attack, transforming a domestic tragedy into one that ended up having significant international ramifications.

But the largest significance of 26/11 lay in the impact that it had on public emotion. Never before had a terrorist attack given rise to public debate of the kind that discussed the role of every element of society in inhibiting terror. From politicians to the country’s security agencies to the media, each failed in its responsibility that eventually claimed the lives of 166 individuals.

The image of the front dome of Taj Mahal Palace hotel encapsulated with a large plume of smoke is one that is etched into the memory of every Mumbaikar. It was not just about the fear of the hundreds trapped inside or the multiple bombings and shootings or the fact that the iconic five-star hotel lay under siege for the longest period of time that made the Taj the face of the 26/11 attacks. Rather, the attack on Taj symbolised something way more powerful. It was a brazen combat against the most affluent and celebrated in the financial capital. It was a brutal strike upon an establishment that symbolised the emergence of an entrepreneurial elite in India.

For more than 60 hours the symbol of opulence in Mumbai lay at the mercy of four heavily armed terrorists.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

Bullet marks on the wall at CST

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) was attacked by two gunmen, Ismail Khan and Ajmal Kasab. Kasab was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire, using AK-47 rifles. The attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others, their assault ending at about 22:45. Security forces and emergency services arrived shortly afterwards. Announcements by a railway announcer, Vishnu Dattaram Zende, alerted passengers to leave the station and saved scores of lives. The two gunmen fled the scene and fired at pedestrians and police officers in the streets, killing eight police officers. The attackers passed a police station. Knowing that they were outgunned against the heavily armed terrorists, the police officers at the station, instead of confronting the terrorists, decided to switch off the lights and secure the gates.

Taj Mahal Hotel and Oberoi Trident Two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident, were among the four locations targeted. Six explosions were reported at the Taj hotel – one in the lobby, two in the elevators, three in the restaurant – and one at the Oberoi Trident. At the Taj Mahal, firefighters rescued 200 hostages from windows using ladders during the first night.

CNN initially reported on the morning of 27 November 2008 that the hostage situation at the Taj had been resolved and quoted the police chief of Maharashtra stating that all hostages were freed; however, it was learned later that day that there were still two attackers holding hostages, including foreigners, in the Taj Mahal hotel.

Nariman House

Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish centre in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad House, was taken over by two attackers and several residents were held hostage. Police evacuated adjacent buildings and exchanged fire with the attackers, wounding one. Local residents were told to stay inside. The attackers threw a grenade into a nearby lane, causing no casualties. NSG commandos arrived from Delhi, and a naval helicopter took an aerial survey. During the first day, 9 hostages were rescued from the first floor. The following day, the house was stormed by NSG commandos fast-roping from helicopters onto the roof, covered by snipers positioned in nearby buildings. After a long battle, one NSG commando Havaldar Gajender Singh Bisht and both perpetrators were killed. Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka Holtzberg, who was six months pregnant, were murdered with four other hostages inside the house by the attackers.

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When there was fear & terror all over the city & lives of people was in danger Mr Puran Doshi secretary of Congress(I) & Ex Corporator, went inside Taj Mahal Hotel wearing live jacket & saved lives of various innocent people in the hotel. He was the only politician who went at the place where terror attacks happened to save the life of innocent people. He also received a bravery award for taking up initiative & saving life of people. His commitment & selfless motive of serving people makes him a true leader.

Parking Issues In Colaba

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Mumbai is one of the most helpless island cities drowning in a sea of cars while battling with its never ending parking problems. As the universal belief goes, finding parking space in the city is a big hindrance. While some residential areas offer parking area, it is extremely difficult for an average middle class person to afford dedicated parking space.

In order to improve the quality of life, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) wishes to improve the basic infrastructure. The city has seen a significant increase in the private vehicles over last few years. It has become increasingly difficult for citizens to find public parking places while they are on the move. In order to ease the parking woes of the citizens, MCGM proposes to adopt and implement a new parking policy. The new parking policy elaborates on-street parking (residential parking, parking near schools, and parking for tourist places) and off-street parking. Moreover, MCGM also envisages web based parking to be implemented and issue receipts using hand held devices.

t is a truth universally acknowledged that a Mumbai resident owning a car must be in search of parking space. The hunt for car parking is, of course, not limited to Mumbai, but is the common frustration with which most major cities of the world grapple. But we are concerned with Mumbai, which looks like drowning in a sea of cars.

This city has circumstances which exacerbate the problem further, being an island as well as a commercial hub, making for an exaggerated density of both humans and vehicles. Compound that with the public assumption that the government and city corporation are our mai-baap and must provide free parking space to all vehicle owners, and you have set the stage for an urban nightmare.

Look at the statistics: there are over 15 lakh cars on Mumbai’s roads, but common parking space for only — hold your breath — 8,000, thanks to the 100-odd pay-and-park areas across the city. The city’s vehicular density is 591 vehicles per square meter, compared to 163 in New Delhi and the international average vehicular density of 300. Not surprisingly, this leads to crises and conflict on a daily basis.

While some residential and office complexes have car parks, the average middle class citizen, who can today afford a car, has nowhere to park. For most, therefore, the solution is to park on the streets, sometimes double and triple parking. This obviously makes life difficult for drivers and for the traffic police who are unable to clear congested roads, making traffic jams inevitable.

On the other hand, there is little improvement in mass transport systems. As environmental activists have pointed out, only 9 per cent of the 14 million people in the city use cars and two-wheelers, but over Rs10,000 crore will be spent over the next few years on road projects.

Therefore, a two-pronged strategy must be employed to tackle the problem. First, we must accept that the government and BMC can and should charge for parking vehicles in the streets, as they do in many cities worldwide. Second, private enterprise must be encouraged to build car parking tower blocks across the city to ease the problem.

Meanwhile, the BMC itself has been most sluggish about developing the huge amount of vacant land it has acquired over the years, specifically reserved for parking. Hopefully, it won’t need court rulings to get us parking space.

One of the worst-hit areas which is affected by Haphazard parking is Colaba. Illegal parking is a major problem in Colaba. This is clearly one of the sore spots in the city due to the VIP movement that happens near Taj Mahal Hotel. The large number of tourists visiting the area makes the situation worse. If any VIP decides to visit the Taj Mahal Hotel then due to security reasons, the resident-owned cars parked on the roads around the hotel are moved to the bylanes in the neighborhood. This leads to complete chaos as these bylanes are narrow and already have several cars parked, which belong to the residents. Moving additional cars here has led to a lot of inconvenience, ultimately leading to major traffic on the roads.

Residents have time and again shared their ideas that could work as lasting solutions for the neighborhood. Some of these ideas include stationing traffic officers at the ‘No Entry’ points at J.A. Alana Marg, Henry Road as well as Walton Road and Garden Road, to curb the violation of two-wheelers and cars not observing the signage. The solutions are meant to be simple alterations in the way the traffic department functions.

ALMs and residents’ associations have repeatedly sent letters to the traffic department requesting them to take action but not much has been done. Even top officials had visited the concerned area to take note of the problems, but nothing has progressed since then.

Subhash Motwani, a Colaba-based activist, shares, “In additon to all the existing problems, there is now the problem of pollution as there are chauffer-driven cars that are parked illegally at J.A. Allana Marg; the drivers sit inside the car while it is parked and the engine is left on. This increases the amount of pollutants emitted from the vehicles, which is absolutely unnecessary and uncalled for.” A Ward, spread across almost 12 sq km, covers one of the most important business districts of the city, the seat of power Mantralaya, tony areas such as Marine Drive, Fort and Navy Nagar, and also a few slum clusters in Colaba and Cuffe Parade. While it is home to 1.88 lakh people, the ward sees nearly eight lakh visitors daily.

Transport experts claim that there has been negligible development as far as underground or multilevel parking lots are concerned. “It’s been so many years, yet the government hasn’t provided sufficient number of multilevel parking lots. When they collect so much tax on vehicles, they should also provide infrastructure for parking,” said Nitin Dossa of Western India Automobile Association.

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Mr “Puran Doshi” secretary of Congress(I) & Ex Corporator  is working towards improving the parking issues in Colaba. According to him the state government should think of broadening the scope of multi-storey parking, as it is happening half-heartedly in selective areas. His suggestion if implemented can lead solve parking issues in Colaba to a great extent. His work & thoughts can really bring positive change in Colaba.